Questions and Answers of Canadian Citizenship Test
Section I. Questions about Canada
1. Who are the Aboriginal peoples of Canada?
     The original inhabitants of Canada. Thought to have come across a landbridge at the Behring straits. Commonly known as the First Nations
2. What are the three main groups of Aboriginal peoples?
       According to the Government they are:
3. In which parts of Canada did the Aboriginal peoples first live?
Depending on the viewpoint it was either in the Northern Territories or right across the Southern portion of Canada.
4. What did the Aboriginal peoples living in your region depend on for survival?
       Hunting, farming and trading
5. From whom are the Métis descended?
       They are of mixed blood. Mainly Native, French and Scot
6. In what industry did the Métis first work with European settlers?
       Fur Trading and trapping
7. Which group of Aboriginal peoples make up more than half the population of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut?
       The Inuit
8. Why are the Aboriginal peoples of Canada working toward self-government?
To keep their unique cultures and languages alive and to regain control over decisions that affect their lives
9. Where did the first European settlers in Canada come from?
       The first settlement was a Viking one around 1012 AD .
10. Why did the early explorers first come to Atlantic Canada?
       To fish and trade with the Native people.
11. Who are the Acadian people?
       They were the first French Settlers
12. What three industries helped the early settlers build communities in the Atlantic region?
       Farming, Fishing and Shipbuilding
13. Who were the United Empire Loyalists?
       People of all races and creed who fled the United States after the American Revolution.
14. When did the United Empire Loyalists come to Canada?
       1775 to 1783 and later
15. When did settlers from France first establish communities on the St. Lawrence River?
        In the early 1600's
16. In which type of industry did most early European settlers work?
       Fishing and trading
17. Which trade spread across Canada, making it important to the economy for over 300 years?
       The Fur Trade
18. What form of transportation did Aboriginal peoples and fur traders use to create trading networks in North America?
19. How long did the Hudson's Bay Company control the northern lands?
       300 years  (1600's to the 1900's)
20. What important trade did the Hudson's Bay Company control?
       The Fur Trade
21. When did thousands of miners first come to the Yukon?
       During the Gold Rush in the late 1800's
22. What did the government do to make immigration to western Canada much easier?
       Built a Railway and offered cheap land
23. Which group of people were important in the building of the Canadian Pacific Railway?
       Apparently only the Chinese.
24. When was the Canadian Pacific Railway finished?
       November 7th 1885 the last spike of the CPR was driven home by Donald Smith at Craigellachie
25. What did the federal government do to encourage people to settle in the Prairie provinces during the early 1900s?
       Offered land at cheap prices
26. What does Confederation mean?
       A joining together of seperate nations in an equal partnership as a new country
27. What is the Canadian Constitution?
              The system of laws and conventions by which the country governs itself.
28. In what year did Canada become a country?
29. Which document made Confederation legal?
       The British North American act of 1867
30. Which document first defined the responsibilities of the federal and provincial governments?
       The British North American Act  
31. When did the British North America Act come into effect?
32Why is the British North America Act important in Canadian history?
       Technically it was the document that created Canada
33. Which four provinces first formed the Confederation?
              Nova Scotia
              New Brunswick
34. List each province and territory and tell when each one joined the Confederation.
               Nova Scotia
               New Brunswick
              Northwest Territories
              British Columbia
              Prince Edward Island
              Yukon Territory
35. Which was the last province to join Canada?
36. When is Canada Day and what does it celebrate?
       July 1st  It is the anniversary of Confederation
37. Who was the first prime minister of Canada?
       Sir. John A MacDonald
38. Why is the Constitution Act of 1982 important in Canadian history?
 In 1982, the new Constitution Act allowed Canadians to change the Constitution without asking the British government's approval. This is the year when the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms became part of the Canadian Constitution.
39. What part of the Constitution legally protects the basic rights and freedoms of all Canadians?
       The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
40. When did the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms become part of the Canadian Constitution?
41. Name two fundamental freedoms protected by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
       Basic freedoms, such as freedom of thought, freedom of speech, and freedom of
       peaceful assembly.
42. Name three legal rights protected by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
       Democratic rights, such as the right to vote;
       Legal rights, such as the right to a fair trial;
       Equality rights, such as the right to protection against discrimination;
       Mobility rights, such as the right to live and work anywhere in Canada;
43. List four rights Canadian citizens have.
       Be a candidate in federal, provincial and territorial elections;
       Be educated in either official language;
       Apply for a Canadian passport;
       Vote in federal, provincial and territorial elections; and
       Enter and leave Canada freely.
44. List three ways in which you can protect the environment.
Throw waste paper or other garbage in designated public garbage containers.  Recycle and re-use as many products as possible, such as paper, glass and cans.   Walk, join a car pool, or use a bicycle or public transit whenever possible. Get involved with a local group to protect our natural and cultural heritage
45. Who has the right to apply for a Canadian passport?
       Any Canadian citizen
46. Who has the right to enter and leave Canada at will?
       Any Canadian Citizen
47. Who has the right to be considered first for a job in the federal government?
       Canadian Citizens
48. What does equality under the law mean?
       All men will be treated equally
49. What does "mobility rights" mean?
       The right to live and work anywhere in Canada
50. Name six responsibilities of citizenship.
 Vote in elections;
 Help others in the community;
 Care for and protect our heritage and environment;
 Obey Canada's laws;
 Express opinions freely while respecting the rights and freedoms of others; and
 Eliminate discrimination and injustice.
51. Give an example of how you can care for Canada's natural heritage.
              Join a community group such as an environmental group
52. What will you promise when you take the Oath of Citizenship?
That you will be faithfull and bear true allegiance to Her Majesty, Queen Elizabeth the Second, Queen of Canada, Her Heirs and Successors, and that you will faithfully observe the laws of Canada and fulfil your duties as a Canadian Citizen
53. Explain how a citizenship right can also be seen as a citizenship responsibility -- for example, the right to vote.
54. Give an example of how you can show responsibility by participating in your community.
               Volunteer to work on an election campaign for a candidate of your choice.
               Help your neighbours.
               Work with others to solve problems in your community.
               Become a candidate in an election
55. Which legal document recognizes the cultural diversity of Canadians?
       The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
56. What are the two official languages of Canada?
       English and French
57. Which legal documents protect the rights of Canadians with regard to official languages?
       The Canadian Constitution and the Official Languages Act
58. Give an example of where English and French have equal status in Canada.
English and French have equal status in the Parliament of Canada, in federal courts and in all federal institutions
59. Where do most French-speaking Canadians live?
       Quebec (followed by Ontario)
60. Which province has the most bilingual Canadians?
61. Which province is the only officially bilingual province?
       New Brunswick
62. What does the Canadian flag look like?
       A rectangle with three equal vertical bars. The two outside bars are red and the inside one is white. In the white (inside) bar there is a red maple leaf
63. What song is Canada's national anthem?
       "O Canada"
64. Give the first two lines of Canada's national anthem.
              O Canada!
              Our home and native land!
65. Where does the name "Canada" come from?
      In 1535, two Indian youths used the Huron-Iroquois word "kanata," which means "village" or "settlement," to tell Jacques Cartier the way to Stadacona (site of present-day Québec City). Cartier used "Canada" to refer not only to Stadacona, but also to the entire area subject to Donnacona, Chief at Stadacona. By 1547, the first world map to show the discoveries made on Cartier's second voyage applied the word "Canada" to the area north of the gulf and river St. Lawrence. By 1550, maps were also placing the name south of the river. The first use of "Canada" as an official name came in 1791 when the Constitutional Act (or Canada Act) divided Québec, then considerably larger, into the provinces of Upper Canada and Lower Canada. In 1841, they were united to become the Province of Canada. At the time of Confederation, the new country took the name of Canada.
66. Which animal is an official symbol of Canada?
       The Beaver
67. What is the tower in the centre of the Parliament buildings called?
       The Peace Tower
68. What unique art form was developed by the First Nations people on the West Coast?
       The Totem Pole
69. Why is the North sometimes called the "Land of the Midnight Sun"?
Because of the suns position low on the horizon during summer. Due to the tilt of the earth the sun does not set at the high northern latitudes
70. An act of Parliament was required to create a new territory in Canada's North. What is the name of the new territory?
71. What is the population of Canada?
       Roughly 31 million people
72. What three oceans border on Canada?
73. How many provinces and territories are there in Canada?
       10 Provinces
       3 Territories
74. What is the capital city of Canada?
75. Name all the provinces and territories and their capital cities.
              Newfoundland                   St. John's
              Prince Edward Island        Charlottetown
              Nova Scotia                       Halifax
              New Brunswick                  Fredericton
              Quebec                              Québec
              Ontario                               Toronto
              Manitoba                            Winnipeg
              Saskatchewan                   Regina
              Alberta                               Edmonton
              British Columbia               Victoria
              Nunavut                             Iqaluit
              Northwest Territories        Yellowknife
              Yukon Territory                 Whitehorse

76. Name the five regions of Canada.
              Atlantic Region
              Central Canada
              Prairie Provinces
              West Coast
77. What are the provinces of Central Canada?
78. What are the provinces of the Atlantic Region?
              Prince Edward Island       
              Nova Scotia
              New Brunswick  
79. What are the Prairie provinces?
80. What are the territories of northern Canada?
              Northwest Territories
              Yukon Territory                  
81. Name one province that is on the Atlantic coast of Canada.
82. Name a province on the Pacific coast of Canada.
       British Columbia
83. Which region covers more than one-third of Canada?
       The Northern Region
84. Where do more than half the people in Canada live?
       In the Southern part of Canada. It is claimed that most Canadians live within 100km of the border
85. One-third of all Canadians live in which province?
86. What is the Canadian Shield?
The land in northern Quebec and Ontario is part of the Canadian Shield, a rock   
 formation that is millions of years old. Canada is one of the world's leading producers of minerals because of the rich deposits of gold, silver, nickel, zinc, copper and iron ore found in the ancient rock of the Shield.
The Shield is covered by forests, and part of Canada's major pulp and paper industry relies on the trees of this region. Some of the vast freshwater resources of the Shield

87. Where is the Canadian Shield?
             Mainly in Ontario and Quebec

88. Where are the Canadian Rockies?
        On the Border between Alberta and British Columbia
89. Where are the Great Lakes?
       On the border between the United States and Canada.The Great Lakes only touch the Province of Ontario
90. What are the names of the Great Lakes?
       Lake Ontario
       Lake Erie
       Lake Huron
       Lake Superior
       Lake Michigan
91. Where is the St. Lawrence Seaway?
       At the Eastern end of Lake Ontario. It joins the St.Lawrence river to the Atlantic ocean.
92. Name two mountain ranges in Canada.
       Rocky , Columbia, Coast
93. Which territory shares a border with another country?
       Yukon Territory  (borders Alaska)
94. Which province is known as the "Land of 100,000 Lakes"?
95. Which provinces are joined to New Brunswick by land?
       Quebec and Nova Scotia
96. To which ocean is Newfoundland closest?
       Atlantic Ocean
97. Which mountain range forms a border between Alberta and British Columbia?
       The Rocky Mountain range
98. Which two provinces are closest to Prince Edward Island?
       Nova Scotia and New Brunswick
99. Which province in Canada is the smallest in land size?
       Prince Edward Island
100. Where are the Parliament buildings located?
101. Which country borders Canada on the south?
       United States of America
102. What are the three main types of industries in Canada?
              Natural resources, manufacturing and services
103. In what sorts of jobs do most Canadians work?
       Over 70% have jobs in the service industries
104. What country is Canada's largest trading partner?
       United States of America
105. Why are the Great Lakes important to Canada?
       As a source of trading as well as a fresh water source for people and industries
106. Why is the St. Lawrence Seaway important to Canada?
Ships from all over the world reach the Great Lakes from the Atlantic Ocean by way of  the St. Lawrence Seaway. The Seaway makes it possible for ocean-going ships to travel on the St. Lawrence River and the small rivers between the Great Lakes.
107. Why is the Canadian Shield important to Canada's economy?
       The rich mineral deposits and the vast forest region
108. List four important minerals found in the Canadian Shield.
              Gold, silver, nickel, zinc, copper and iron ore
109. Which province is one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world?
110. Which region is known as the industrial and manufacturing heartland of Canada?
       Central Canada
111. Which region of Canada is known for both its fertile agricultural land and valuable energy resources?
       The Prairie Region
112. Which two provinces produce more than three-quarters of Canadian manufactured goods?
       Ontario and Quebec
113. Which province is the biggest producer of metals in Canada?
114. Which province is Canada's main producer of pulp and paper?
115. Which province has the largest dairy farming industry in Canada?
116. Which province has the most valuable forest industry in Canada?
       British Columbia
117. Which province is Canada's major producer of oil and gas?
118. Which province is Canada's leading wheat producer?
119. Which province is Canada's largest producer of hydroelectricity?
120. Which two fuels provide about one-half of all the energy used in Canada?
       Oil and Natural Gas
121. Which products from southern Ontario are among Canada's key exports?
       Products from the auto industry
122. Name three minerals still being mined in the territories today.
       Gold, Lead and Zinc
123. Which city provides important shipping and air links between Canada and other countries across the Pacific Ocean?
124. What products are produced in the Niagara Peninsula?
       Fruit and Wine
125. More than half of Canada's aeronautics and space industries are located in which province?
126. For what is the Okanagan Valley famous?
       Fruit Orchards (but try the Wine)
127. What fish is a valuable industry on the West Coast?
128. Who is Canada's Head of State?
       Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II
129. Who is the Queen's representative in Canada?
       The Governor General
130. What is the name of the Governor General?
     See here
131. What do you call the Queen's representative in the provinces and territories?
132. What is Canada's system of government called?
133. What are the three parts of Parliament?
       The Queen
       The House of Commons
       The Senate
134. What are the three levels of government in Canada?
       Provincial (or Territorial)
       Municipal  (or Local)
135. Explain how the three levels of government are different.
 In general, the federal government takes major responsibility for matters that affect all of Canada. These include national defence, foreign policy and citizenship.
Provincial and territorial governments look after such matters as education, health       
care and highways. They share responsibilities with the federal government in some areas.
The municipal (or local) governments of each city or community are responsible for matters such as policing, firefighting, snow removal and recycling programs.      
136. Name two levels of government and explain how they are different.
Provincial Governments look after such matters as education, health care and
highways in the province which effects all the people who live in that Province.
The municipal (or local) governments of each city or community are responsible for local matters which effect only the citizens of that area.
137. Name two responsibilities for each level of government.
              Federal government - National defence, foreign policy and citizenship.
              Provincial government -  education, health care and highways.
              Municipal (or local) government - Policing, firefighting, snow removal,recycling
138. What do you call a law before it is passed?
       A bill  
139. How does a bill become a law?
To become law, a bill must be approved by majorities in the House of Commons and in the Senate.
140. What is the final step before a bill becomes a law?
              Once a majority of MPs and senators have approved a bill,the Governor General    
              gives final approval and the bill becomes law.
141. What do the initials MP stand for in Canadian politics?
       Member of Parliament
142. How are members of Parliament chosen?
       Canadian citizens go to the polls to elect their local representative
143. Who do members of Parliament represent?
An elected MP represents everyone who lives in his or her electoral district, even the people who did not vote for the MP
144. What does a member of Parliament do?
       Represents your ideas when new laws are being proposed;
       Asks questions about the government on your behalf
       Helps you if you need information from the government or if you have any problem
       with the government.
145. What is an "electoral district"?
 An electoral district is a geographical area represented by a member of the House of Commons.
146. How many electoral districts are there in Canada?
147. In what electoral district do you live?
       See here
148. What four requirements must you meet in order to vote in a federal election?
       A Canadian Citizen
       At least 18 years old
       Be on the National Register of  Electors
       Have a Notice of Confirmation of Registration
149. What is a Notice of Confirmation of Registration?
              The notice tells you when and where to vote
150. What is a polling station?
       Any designated building or area where you may cast your vote
151. What is a ballot?
        A piece of paper which has the names of the local candidates on it.
152. What is written on an election ballot?
The ballot lists the names of the candidates in your electoral district in alphabetical order.
153. What do you mark on a federal election ballot?
              An "X" in the circle beside the name of your chosen candidate
154. What does voting by secret ballot mean?
This means that no one can watch you vote and no one should look at your marked ballot.
155. Who has the right to vote in federal elections?
       Any Canadian Citizen over the age of 18
156. Who has the right to run as a candidate in federal elections?
       Any Canadian citizen over the age of 18
157. Who do Canadians vote for in a federal election?
              The people in each electoral district vote for the candidate of their choice
158. How is the government formed after an election?
After an election, the party with the most elected representatives becomes the party in power. The leader of this party becomes the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister and the party in power run the government as long as they have the support of the majority of the Members of Parliament (MPs), in the House of Commons
159. How is the prime minister chosen?
       The Prime Minister is normally the leader of the party with the majority of votes cast
160. When does an election have to be held according to the Constitution?
According to Canada's Constitution, an election must be held within five years of the last election.
161. What do political parties do?
A political party is a group of people who share ideas about how the government  should work
Members of political parties help to: decide on the party platform; choose the party  leader; choose the party's candidates; and campaign for party candidates in elections
162. What does "party platform" mean?
 Members of political parties hold meetings where they discuss their ideas and
 opinions. They develop plans for what they would do if their candidates were elected to form the government. The plans they make are called the party platform.
163. Name all the federal political parties represented in the House of Commons and their leaders.
              Conservative Party - Stephan Harper             
              Liberal  - Bill Graham
              Bloc Quebecois - Gilles Duceppe
              New Democratic Party - Jack Layton
     (see also here)
164. Which federal political party is in power?
        Conservative Party (see also here)
165. To which party does your member of Parliament belong?
        Liberal Party (see also here)
166. What does it mean for a political party to "be in power"?
       They have won the most "seats" in an election and have formed the Goverment. Their brief is to manage the affairs of the country on a daily basis.
167. What are the parties that are not in power called?
       The Opposition (parties)
168. Which party becomes the Official Opposition?
       The party with the second largest amount of MP's.
169. What is the role of the Opposition parties?
       The role of the Opposition parties is to oppose or try to improve government proposals.
170. Which party is the Official Opposition at the federal level?
       Liberal Party (see also here)
171. What is a political candidate?
       A citizen who is seeking election to the parliament based on a set of principles they believe in.
172. What do you call a candidate who does not belong to a political party?
173. What is a Cabinet minister?

The Prime Minister chooses several MPs to become Cabinet ministers. Cabinet  ministers are responsible for running the federal government departments. The Prime Minister and the Cabinet ministers are called the Cabinet, and they make important decisions about how to run the country. They also propose most new laws. Their decisions can be questioned by all MPs in the House of Commons

174. How are senators chosen?

The people who serve in the Senate are chosen by the Prime Minister and appointed by the Governor General

175. How can a party in power be defeated in Parliament?
At the polls or by being out-voted in a motion If a majority of the MPs vote against a major government decision, the party in power where he is defeated. The Prime Minister resigns and a new election is usually held
176. What is the name of the Prime Minister of Canada?
    Stephan Harper (see also here)
177. What is the name of your member of Parliament?
    Bill Graham (see also here)
178. How can you contact your member of Parliament?
    Telephone, Mail, E-mail, Constituency Office, Internet.
179. Who do provincial members of the legislative or national assemblies represent?
    The voters of the province or riding that they are elected to represent
180. What level of government passes "by-laws"?
Section II. Questions about your region
181. When did settlers from Europe first come to your region?
       Late 1600's  
182. Who were the first settlers in the area where you live?
       United Empire Loyalists
183. Why did the early Europeans come to your region in the 1600s, 1700s, 1800s or early 1900s?
       To escape the American Revolution
184. What is the capital city of the province or territory in which you live?
185. What are the major industries of your city, province and region today?
        Mining - Nickel, gold, silver, platinum, uranium, zinc and copper
       The automobile industry
       The Forestry industry
       Technology (computer based)
186. What is the most valuable manufacturing industry in your region today?
       The Automobile industry
187. List three minerals found in your region.
       Gold, zinc, nickel, copper
188. List three natural resources important to your region's economy today.
       Mineral deposits
189. List the activities that are important to the tourism industry in your region.
       Winter sports
       Water sports
       Cultural activities
       Business activities
190. What has always been important to the economy in your region?
       An abundance of water
191. Who is your city councillor, alderperson, reeve or regional councillor?
       Ward 24, City Councillor - (see here)
192. What is the name of your mayor?
       David Miller (see also here)
193. What is the name of your provincial representative (member of the Legislative Assembly, member of the provincial Parliament, member of the National Assembly or member of the House of Assembly)?
       (See here)
194. What is the name of the premier of your province?
       Dalton McGuinty (see also here)
195. Which political party is in power in your province or territory?
       Liberal Party (see also here)
196. What is the name of the leader of the Opposition in your province?
       John Tory (see also here)
197. What is the name of your lieutenant-governor or commissioner?

       James Bartleman (see also here)

You may be asked questions similar to these when you undergo your citizenship test.
For more information check also next links:
Canadian citizenship practice test, Richmond, B.C.
Canadian citizenship practice test, Toronto Public Library
Canadian charter of rights and freedoms
Preparation guide for the Canadian citizenship test

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